cause and effect
Goal: Analyze the causes and consequences of earthquakes on Earth's surface
Earthquakes: What You Need to Know
Earthquakes are caused by the sudden movement of tectonic plates beneath the Earth's surface. Earthquakes can cause destruction and loss of life, but can also be used to measure the Earth's interior. Earthquakes are unpredictable but can be studied to help prepare for future events.
Seismic Waves: Seismic waves are energy that travels through the Earth’s layers. These energy waves occur when there is an earthquake, and they can travel through the Earth’s layers at different speeds.
Epicenter: The epicenter is the point on Earth’s surface directly above the focus, or the place where the earthquake occurred.
Richter Magnitude Scale: The Richter Magnitude Scale is a way of measuring the intensity or strength of an earthquake. It is based on the amount of energy released by the earthquake.
Did you know?
Earthquakes can sometimes be caused by human activities such as mining, oil and gas extraction, and the construction of large buildings. In the past, earthquakes have been caused by natural events such as landslides, volcanic eruptions, and even meteorite impacts. Earthquakes can cause soil liquefaction, which is when the ground turns to liquid due to the vibrations of an earthquake.
What are the three main types of seismic waves generated by an earthquake?
Primary Waves (P-waves): These are the fastest seismic waves and are the first to be recorded by seismographs. P-waves are compressional waves that travel through solids, liquids, and gases. They cause particles to move in the same direction as the wave, like a slinky being pushed and pulled.
Secondary Waves (S-waves): S-waves are slower than P-waves and follow them in an earthquake. They are shear waves that only travel through solid materials. S-waves cause particles to move perpendicular to the direction of the wave, like shaking a rope.
Surface Waves: Surface waves are slower than both P-waves and S-waves and mainly affect the Earth's surface. There are two types of surface waves: Love waves and Rayleigh waves. Love waves move in a side-to-side motion, while Rayleigh waves have a rolling motion and can cause the most significant damage during an earthquake.
What are the primary causes of earthquakes?
What are some of the consequences of earthquakes on Earth's surface?
What is the instrument used to record and measure earthquakes called?
What is the term for a smaller earthquake that occurs after a larger earthquake, in the same area?
GROUP: Select one task
Question: How can we reduce the impact of earthquakes on our homes and city?
Research the building codes of your city. Understand the seismic zone in your area. Learn about the most earthquake-resistant building materials.
A: Design a plan to strengthen an existing building. B: Create a plan to quickly evacuate a city in case of an earthquake.