Maps can be used to study Earth's surface by showing the location and distribution of physical features, such as mountains, rivers, and deserts. Maps can also be used to study Earth's atmosphere by showing patterns of air pressure, temperature, and wind speed. Maps can be used to study the Earth's oceans by showing patterns of currents, salinity, and ocean floor topography.
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Key features of a Map
Title Legend Scale Orientation
Title and Legend
Title: The map's title provides a brief description of what the map illustrates. It helps users quickly understand the map's content and purpose. Legend or Key: The legend explains the symbols, colors, and other graphical elements used on the map. It helps users understand the meaning of different features, such as roads, rivers, landmarks, and more.
Scale and Orientation
Scale: The scale indicates the relationship between distances on the map and actual distances on the Earth's surface. It helps users estimate distances and sizes accurately. Orientation: An arrow or compass rose indicates the cardinal directions (north, south, east, west) to ensure that users can orient themselves correctly based on real-world directions.
Maps can help us identify features like mountains, rivers, and deserts. We can also observe changes in the land over time, like the growth of cities. Using a map’s scale, we can calculate the size of different land features.
Using Maps to Study Earth's Surface
. Topographic Maps are a summary of the landscape and show important physical (natural and man-made) features in an area. The primary difference is that they show elevation in detail. Characteristics of topographic maps include: they show elevation using contour lines. Put simply, a contour line is a line which joins points of equal elevation above sea level
How can contour lines on a map help determine steepness of terrain?
- Wider contour lines indicate steeper terrain
- Contour lines have no relation to steepness
- Closer contour lines indicate steeper terrain
A type of map that shows the type of rock, soil, or other material that makes up the Earth's surface. It also shows the age of the rocks and the locations of faults and folds.
A type of map that shows a particular phenomenon such as population density, climate, or vegetation. It can also show the physical features of a region, such as rivers, mountains, and lakes.
What is one thing you have learn't about maps?
Brain break: Draw a silly donut with legs and arms doing a dance performance on top of a stage
What is the primary tool used to study Earth's surface?
What is the purpose of using a scale on a map?
- To determine time zones
- To measure distances between locations
- To identify landmarks
Why are satellite images and aerial photographs important in studying Earth's surface?
- They help locate underground resources
- They show historical changes in landscapes
- They provide detailed views of specific areas
Work together in pairs: What are two ways that maps help geologists study Earth's surface?
What are the 3 different kind of map we just covered?
What do topographic maps show?
- Ocean currents
- Weather patterns
- Elevation and landforms
Topographical Map Focus
Interpret Contour Lines: Contour lines are curved lines that represent the elevation and shape of the land. Each contour line connects points of equal elevation. Closer contour lines indicate steeper terrain, while widely spaced lines suggest gentler slopes.
Identify Index Contours:
Index contours are labeled with their elevation. They are usually bolder or thicker than other contour lines and appear at regular intervals. Use them as reference points to gauge elevation changes.