Earth's 4 Main Systems
Atmosphere Hydrosphere Biosphere Lithosphere
What is a system?
A system is an organized group of related objects or components
The thin layer of air, mostly nitrogen and oxygen, that surrounds Earth. The atmosphere provides oxygen for living things, protects the Earth from harmful radiation from the Sun, and helps regulate the temperature on earth.
Hydrosphere: All the water on Earth. About 97% of Earth’s water is salt water. 2% of the earth's water is stored as fresh water in glaciers, ice caps, and snowy mountain ranges. 1% of earth's water available to us for our daily water supply needs.
All the living organisms on Earth from bacteria to plants to animals. Most organisms live on Earth’s surface, but some live in the deep ocean or atmosphere.
Lithosphere (also called the geosphere): The solid rock part of Earth, including mountains, valleys, continents, and all of the rock beneath the oceans. The lithosphere includes the surface of Earth down to the center.
We can describe the topography of a region by measuring the height or depth of that feature relative to sea level - the height of the ocean’s surface A topographic map of an area shows the differences in height or elevation for mountains, craters, valleys, and rivers.
L1.2 Analyze It
On the graph paper, plot the heights and/or depths of each of the Earth features given in the table. Each square on the Y axis represents 500 meters.
What is the difference between a canyon and trench?
A canyon is formed by water erosion, like from a river. A trench is formed by the action of tectonic plates and is generally much larger.
A seamount is an underwater mountain with steep sides rising from the seafloor. Usually volcanic in origin Typically rising more than 1000 metres above the surrounding ocean floor and the sumit does not show on the ocean surfance
If you were standing at sea level, which mountain appears to be taller?
Which mountain is largest from top to bottom?
Looking at the bar graph, what do you conclude is the depth of the normal ocean floor around most of these features? From your table, what is at this level?
If the Mariana Trench is 11,000 m deep and Everest is only 8,800 m high, why isn’t the trench greater from top to bottom than Mount Everest?
Brain break: Draw a pancake mountain with beautiful syrup waterfall
What information can a map provide that a compass cannot?
What information can a compass provide that a map cannot?
Shows lines of longitude that are parallel to one another and perpendicular to lines of latitude, making a GRID. Close to the poles the land masses are very large (e.g. Greenland, Canada, Russia, etc.) South America and Africa look very small in comparison. The ocean distances and latitude/longitude lines are not distorted, so this was good for navigating ocean travel.
The Robinson projection shows lines of longitude that are not parallel and do not meet at the poles. Antarctica looks very large. Greenland looks flattened north to south. The size of land masses and ocean sizes looks less distorted than the other two, so this is good for representing both land and water.